The innovation of founding the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) originated from a propitious Swiss merchant named Jean Henry Dunant in 19th century. He was affected by the scenes of “Sulferino Battle” in Italy in 1859 at which 40,000 soldiers were killed or injured and were left helpless. Jean Henry wrote a small book entitled “Sulferino note”.
He suggested in this book that a voluntarily organization to be founded in all countries to care for the injured soldiers and harmed people regardless of political or ethnic divisions; for this reason, he asked the world’s countries’ leaders to establish relief associations.
Later on five Swiss citizens established a committee which was named the International Committee of Red Cross. This Committee called on for an international conference and ultimately this conference was held in Geneva in 1863 with participation of representatives of 16 countries.
In 1963, The ICRC was established in 88 countries.
In Islamic countries, the term Red Crescent is used instead of Red Cross.